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Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a sovereign state in Central Western Europe. It covers 16 states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometers and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With around 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany's capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, the largest metropolitan area is the Ruhr area with its centers Dortmund and Essen. Other major cities are Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Dusseldorf, Leipzig, Bremen, Dresden, Hanover and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since ancient times. A region called Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the migration of peoples, the Germanic tribes expanded to the south.