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Florence is the capital of the Italian region Tuscany. It is the most populated city in Tuscany, with 383,084 inhabitants in 2013 and more than 1,520,000 in its metropolis. Florence was a center of medieval European commerce and finance and one of the richest cities of that time. It is considered the birthplace of the Renaissance and was called "Athens of the Middle Ages". A turbulent political history includes periods of reign of the powerful Medici family and numerous religious and republican revolutions. From 1865 to 1871, the city was the capital of the recently founded Kingdom of Italy. The Florentine dialect forms the basis of standard Italian and became the Italian language of culture due to the prestige of the masterpieces by Dante Alighieri, Petrarch, Giovanni Boccaccio, Niccolò Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini.