London - is the capital and largest city of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland . Administratively forms the region of England Greater London , divided into 33 self-governing territories. The population is 8.6 million people (2015) - this is the third largest city in Europe. Forms the agglomeration of Greater London and the vast metropolitan area . Located in the southeast of the island of Great Britain , on the plain at the mouth of the Thames , near the North Sea . The main political, economic and cultural center of the United Kingdom.
London belongs to the global cities of the highest rank and the leading world financial centers . Its economy is the fifth of the country's economy.
Founded by the Romans shortly after their invasion of Britain, 43 years AD. e. Approximately from the year 100 n. e. - the capital of Roman Britain , from the XI-XII centuries - England, from 1707 - Britain, from the XVI to XX century - the British Empire . From 1825 to 1925, London was the largest city in the world.
The historical center of the city, formed by the districts of Westminster and the City, developed during the Victorian era . Among the few buildings that survived here after the fire in 1666 - the medieval citadel of the Tower .
Flights to London
London All Airports - LON
Heathrow Airport - LHR, is the largest airport in the UK and the busiest in the world. It has 4 passenger terminals and one freight terminal. It is 22 km. west of London . It was built in 1946.
The airport has an area of 1227 hectares. It has two runways - northern, 3902 meters long and 3660 meters long southern. In 2014, 472,802 flights were made, averaging 1295 per day. Passenger traffic for 2014 is 73 405 330 people. There are 125 airplane sleeves. The airport is operated by 84 airlines and operates flights to 184 destinations in 80 countries. The terminals were opened in 1961, 1968, 1986 and 2008, and Terminal 2 was rediscovered after a reconstruction in 2014.
The airline is used by 80 airlines and connects it with 185 destinations in 84 countries. It is a hub for the British Airways national carrier and a base for Virgin Atlantic. It has 4 passenger terminals (2-5) and one cargo terminal. In 2014, 73.4 million passengers traveled through the airport, of which 93% were in transit, and the remaining 7% preferred Britain as a destination .
Gatwick Airport - LGW , is the second largest airport in London and the second busiest airport in the UK after Heathrow . Located in Crawley , West Sussex (originally Charlwood , Surrey ) 5 km north of the city center, 46 km south of London and 40 km north of Brighton. It Serves about two hundred directions, annually the airport services are used by thirty-four million passengers, 263,363 take-offs and landings are made in 2006. Charter airlines are not served in Heathrow , therefore Gatwick is used as their base airport in London and southeast England. For the last 30 years, the airport has been used by airlines flying between the US and the UK due to airport restrictions under an intergovernmental agreement between the United States and Great Britain. The airport is the base for British Airways , EasyJet and Virgin Atlantic .
London Stansted Airport - STN, largest passenger airport with a single runway, is the hub of a number of European low-cost airlines . Located in the area of Atlasford in the English county of Essex , 48 km northeast of London . It is 3 km from Bishops Stortford and 10 km from Harlow . This is the third largest airport in London after Heathrowand Gatwick , as well as one of the six London international airports with Luton , London City and Sausend .
London Luton Airport - LTN - is international airport , located on the outskirts of Luton , Bedfordshire , England 48 km north of London . The airport is 3 km from the M1 motorway 10a. This is the fourth largest airport in London after Heathrow , Gatwick andStansted and one of six London international airports, including London City
In 2005, passenger traffic at Luton Airport grew by 21% to 9.1 million and the airport became the seventh busiest and one of the fastest growing airports in the UK. However, in 2006, growth slowed to 3%, when 9.41 million passengers were transported. The airport is a hub for easyJet , Monarch Airlines , Thomsonfly , Wizz Air , Silverjet and Ryanair . Most of the flights from Luton Airport are sent to European airports.
"London City Airport - LCY is Airport with a single stripe for use aircraft with short takeoff and landing, serving primarily business districts of London . Located in Docklands , Newham in East London , England , and was built by Mowlem in 1986-1987. London City is the fifth largest international airport in London after Heathrow , Gatwick"," Stansted "and" Luton ".
The airport has a license No. P728, which allows passengers to be transported and trained to fly an aircraft for aircraft, for which it is possible to approach the landing at an angle of 5.5 or more steep.
There is a plan for the development of the airport until 2030. The plan provides for a step-by-step expansion of the airport to a maximum capacity of 8 million passengers a year without the construction of a second runway or the expansion of existing airport boundaries.
Average for London
The climate in London is temperate marine , with mild winters and warm summers, and a uniform distribution of precipitation throughout the year. A mild climate, as in all of Western Europe, is due to the influence of the warm ocean current of the Gulf Stream . The peculiarity of the London climate is a very small inter-seasonal amplitude of fluctuations: from +5.1 C in January to +18.1 C in July (the difference is 13 C. Thus, the winter in London is as soft as in the city of the north of the subtropical belt and the summer is at an average temperature even cooler than in Moscow and St. Petersburg , and thus is moderately warm but not hot.
The warmest month is July: the average daily air temperature is a maximum of +22.5 C. Extreme temperatures in the summer occur in July and August, when hot weather sets for several days. In recent years, hotter summer weather has been noted . In winter it is cool, but not frosty, at night the temperature does not usually drop below -7 C . The coldest month is January: the average daily air temperature is at least -3 C. Extreme temperatures in winter usually occur in December and January, with the difference in air temperatures in different parts of the city can be several degrees. The average number of days with frosts when the temperature is lowered below 0 C in the surface air layer is 30 or less days a year. During the cooling periods from late autumn to early spring at night with a weak wind, the " heat island " effect is most noticeable when, due to heated buildings, air in central London can be 5 C warmer than outside the city.
London - the most important economic and financial center of Great Britain and Europe; One of the global cities , competing with New York for the title of the world's leading financial center . In 2011, London accounted for 21.9% of the UK economy (measured by gross value added) . The fourth largest city economy in the world (after Tokyo, New York and Paris): GDP in 2010 was 751.8 billion dollars.
The largest sectors of the economy in terms of employment in 2010: health and social services - 9%, retail trade - 9%, financial intermediation - 8%, transport, warehousing and communications - 7%, education - 7%, hotels and restaurants - 7 %, public administration and defense, mandatory social security - 5%, production - 4%. The unemployment rate was 8.9% .
The second most important branch in the economy of London is the information industry. London remains one of the largest industrial centers of Britain. The industry of the city and its suburbs is represented by mechanical engineering (automotive, electronic industry, machine-tool building, shipbuilding and ship repair, etc.), light, food, oil refining and petrochemical industries, printing, etc. are well developed. The tourist industry (for 2010) provides jobs for more than 250,000 people. For a year, visitors leave in London 10 billion pounds. It was believed that the popularity of tourists the city is second only to Paris, but recent data showed that in 2010, 45 million vouchers were sold to London, while in Paris it was only 33.9 million.
Despite the fact that once London was one of the largest ports in Europe, now even in the UK it is only in second place. The annual cargo turnover of the port is 50 million tons of cargo . London took the 4th place among the most prosperous cities in the world according to the UN data for 2012 (after Vienna, New York and Toronto) . While during the growth of the economy in 1997-2006, London and South-East Britain provided more than a third of the growth of the national economy, after the collapse of 2007 their share increased to almost half of it.
For centuries, the focus of urban financial life is the business district of the City , but since the 1990s for the title of financial and business center of London, Canary Wharf is fighting in the eastern part of the city . In London, there are the headquarters of many English and multinational companies, including BP , Royal Dutch Shell , Unilever , Corus Group , SABMiller , Cadbury , etc. The central offices of more than 100 of the 500 largest European companies are located in the British capital. The most important branch of the city's economy is finance, including banking, insurance, asset management; in London are located the headquarters of the largest banks and financial companies, including such as HSBC , Reuters , Barclays . One of the world's largest centers for foreign exchange and stock trading - the London Stock Exchange. The main shopping streets: Oxford Street , Bond Street and Knightsbridge, which houses the famous shopping center " Harrod's ". The small Soho district is famous for shopping and entertainment.
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Current conditions for London, (LON), United Kingdom (51.5°/0.05°)
Altitude: 16.4ft / 5m
Temperature: 66.2 °F / 19 °C
- Feels like:
- 66 °F / 19 °C
- 43 °F / 6 °C
- Wind direction:
- 300° WNW
- Wind speed:
- 11mi per hr / 17km per hr (9kts per sec / 5m per sec)
- Cloud cover:
- 6.21mi / 10km
- 30.14in / 1017.9mb
Content from Wikipedia.